Ali Said Faqi
Friday June 2, 2023
political system is a parliamentary representative, where the president is the
head of state, and the prime minister (PM) is the head of government. The Parliament
is bicameral, and its members are selected through a clan-based 4.5 formula. The Parliament (lower and upper house) is made
up of 329, and subsequently, they undertake the responsibility of electing a president
who will hold the office for a period of 4 years.
order to form a government, the president selects a PM who is then required to
gain approval from the parliament along with his cabinet. The PM proposes legislation and implements
policies. However, the president has veto power over the PM’s decisions. The president
can veto legislation but has no power to dismiss the PM and the government. The
PM can be removed from office by a vote of no confidence supported by the
majority of the members of the House of the People (lower house). If the vote
of no confidence is successful, the PM and the entire cabinet must resign.
vs Presidential system
system of governance prevalent in a country plays a vital role in shaping its
political and social landscape. The parliamentary and presidential systems have
become the center of public attention and controversy. While both systems have
their own unique features, they have significant differences in their
functioning and structure.
this article, we will delve into the contrasts that exist between the
parliamentary and presidential systems of government. We will also discuss
their respective pros and cons.
parliamentary and presidential systems of governance are forms of democratic
government that are prevalent worldwide. The parliamentary system is based on
the principle of collective responsibility, where the executive authority is
vested in the hands of the parliament. The parliamentary system is prevalent in
countries like the United Kingdom, India, and Australia.
presidential system, on the other hand, is based on the principle of popular
sovereignty, where the executive authority is vested in the hands of the
president. The presidential system is prevalent in countries like the United
States, Russia, and Brazil.
and Presidential Forms of Governments
Structure and Composition of Government
parliamentary system consists of two branches: the legislative and executive
branches. The legislative branch comprises elected representatives who form the
parliament and the executive branch comprises the PM and the cabinet members.
In contrast, the presidential system has three distinct branches: the
legislative, executive, and judicial branches. The executive branch comprises
the president and the cabinet, the legislative branch comprises the elected
representatives, and the judicial branch comprises the courts.
parliamentary system, the focus of power lies with the parliament, which makes
it easy to pass legislation, as the ruling party is usually in power. The PM is
accountable to the parliament and can be removed from office if a vote of no
confidence is passed. In contrast, the presidential system places the focus of
power on the president, making it difficult to pass legislation as the
president’s agenda often clashes with the majority party in the legislative
branch. The president is often accused of excessive exercise of authority,
becoming unaccountable to the legislature.
parliamentary system, the citizens elect the legislature members, and the
majority party's leader is appointed as the PM. The PM selects the cabinet, and
the executive branch is formed. In
contrast, in a presidential system, the citizens elect both the president and
the members of the legislature independently. This often leads to a situation
where the president and the legislative branch are controlled by different
political parties, making it difficult to pass legislation.
of Parliamentary Systems:
the defining characteristics of parliamentary systems is the separation of
powers between the executive and legislative branches of government. In this
system, the head of government (PM or chancellor) is selected from the ruling
party or coalition in the legislative body. This allows for significant overlap
between the executive and legislative branches, as the head of government is
responsible for both leading the government and answering the Parliament.
characteristic of parliamentary systems is their reliance on parties to gain
and maintain power in government. In contrast to presidential systems, where
the president is elected separately from the legislative body, parliamentary
systems rely on party politics to form and maintain governments. This can lead
to more frequent changes in government, as a loss of confidence or stability
within the ruling party or coalition can lead to a vote of no confidence and
the formation of a new government. On the contrary, the potential of a
coalition government to succeed depends on the willingness of parties to work
together and compromise on certain issues. If successful, it can lead to a more
inclusive and stable government, which can benefit the country as a whole.
of Presidential Systems
systems are characterized by a separation of powers between the executive,
legislative, and judicial branches of government. The president, who is the
head of the executive branch, is responsible for executing laws, appointing
officials, and directing foreign policy. The legislative branch is responsible
for making and passing laws, while the judicial branch is responsible for
interpreting and enforcing laws. This separation of powers is intended to
ensure that no one branch of government becomes too powerful and that the
interests of all citizens are protected.
the main advantages of presidential systems is that they provide strong and
stable leadership. Because the president is elected by the people, he or she
has the mandate to lead the country and to implement policies that reflect the
will of the people. Additionally, because the president is not dependent on the
support of the legislature to remain in power, he or she is free to make
unpopular decisions if necessary. Another advantage of presidential systems is
that they encourage political stability and continuity of government. Because
the president has a set term in office, there is less ambiguity involved in
comparison to other government structures, like a parliamentary system. This
stability can be important for businesses and investors, who need a predictable
environment in which to operate.
transition to a presidential system, the constitution would need to be amended
to redefine the powers of the president and the parliament. In addition to a
constitutional amendment, it would require political will and consensus among
the stakeholders. It would also require a clear plan for the election of the
president and his running mate (the VP), as well as the establishment of new
systems of checks and balances to prevent abuse of powers.
Somalia were to adopt a 2-party system in the future, voters will likely elect parties
based on their ideologies, political platforms, the quality of the candidates,
and the effectiveness of party campaigns. Other factors such as personal relationships,
clan affiliations, and regional/district interests can also play a role in
determining how voters cast their ballots.
potential adoption of a 2-party system will have the capacity to revolutionize
the political landscape of the nation, bringing with it much-needed stability,
transparency, and a reduction in political frictions based on clan
affiliations. It can also promote compromise and cooperation between the
parties, as they are forced to work together to achieve their goals.
In general, both parliamentary and
presidential systems offer their own merits and demerits, and it is up to each
nation to determine which one is best for their democracy.
the choice between a parliamentary or presidential system must be based on
careful consideration of all relevant factors including history, culture, and
political landscape. The present scenario presents evidence that the federal
parliament of Somalia is incapable of providing the necessary democratic
process owing to its lack of autonomy. It is also important to note that a
presidential system can also be prone to abuses of power and can result in a
lack of accountability if there are no robust checks and balances in place. The success of any system of government depends
on the ability of its institutions to function effectively and to hold those in
power accountable to the people. A political ethos of a banana republic, marked
by corruption, oppressive behavior, and a dearth of democratic values is
incompatible with any form of governance.
Ali Said Faqi